Accountants prepare trial balance to determine the correctness of accounts. If total of debit balances doesn’t accept the entire of credit balances, it’s a obvious-cut indication that particular errors happen to be committed while recording the transactions within the books of original entry or subsidiary books. It’s our utmost duty to discover these errors and rectify them, only only then do we should proceed for preparing final accounts. We realize that all kinds of errors aren’t revealed by trial balance as a few of the errors don’t effect the entire of trial balance. So these can’t be located with the aid of trial balance. A cpa should invest his energy to discover both kinds of errors and rectify them before preparing buying and selling, profit and loss account and balance sheet. If they are prepared before rectification these can not provide us with the right result and profit and loss disclosed by them, shall ‘t be the particular profit or loss.
All errors of accounting process could be considered follows:
1. Errors of Principle
Whenever a transaction is recorded from the fundamental concepts of accounting, it’s an error of principle. For instance, if revenue expenditure is treated as capital expenditure or the other way around.
2. Clerical Errors
These errors can again be sub-divided the following:
(i) Errors of omission
Whenever a transaction is either wholly or partly not recorded within the books, it’s an error of omission. It might be regarding omission to go in a transaction within the books of original entry or regarding omission to publish a transaction in the books of original admission to the account concerned within the ledger.
(ii) Errors of commission
When an entry is incorrectly recorded either wholly or partly-incorrect posting, calculation, casting or balancing. A few of the errors of commission effect the trial balance whereas others don’t. Errors effecting the trial balance could be revealed by preparing an effort balance.
(iii) Paying errors
Sometimes a mistake is counter-balanced by another error in a way that it’s not disclosed through the trial balance. Such errors are known as paying errors.
From the purpose of look at rectification from the errors, these may be split into two groups :
(a) Errors affecting one account only, and
(b) Errors affecting several accounts.
Errors affecting one account
Errors which affect could be :
(a) Casting errors
(b) error of posting
(c) carry forward
(d) balancing and
(e) omission from trial balance.
Such errors should, to begin with, be discovered and fixed. They are fixed either with the aid of journal entry or by providing an explanatory note within the account concerned.
Stages of correction of accounting errors
All kinds of errors in accounts could be fixed at two stages:
(i) prior to the preparation from the final accounts and
(ii) following the preparation of ultimate accounts.
Errors fixed inside the accounting period
The correct approach to correction of the error would be to pass journal entry in a way it corrects the error that’s been committed as well as gives effect towards the entry which should happen to be passed. But while errors are now being fixed prior to the preparation of ultimate accounts, in some cases the correction can not be done with the aid of journal entry since the errors happen to be such. Normally, the process of rectification, if being carried out, prior to the preparation of ultimate accounts is really as follows:
(a) Correction of errors affecting one for reds of 1 account Such errors don’t let the trial balance agree because they effect just one side of 1 account so these can not be remedied with the aid of journal entry, if correction is needed prior to the preparation of ultimate accounts. So needed amount is defined on credit or debit side from the concerned account, because the situation maybe. For instance:
(i) Sales book under cast by Rs. 500 within the month of The month of january. The mistake is just in sales account, to be able to correct the sales account, we ought to record around the credit side of sales account ‘By under casting of. sales book for that month of The month of january Rs. 500″.I’Explanation:As sales book was under cast by Rs. 500, this means all accounts apart from sales account are correct, only credit balance of sales account is less by Rs. 500. So Rs. 500 happen to be credited in sales account.
(ii) Discount permitted to Marshall Rs. 50, not published to discount account. This means that the quantity of Rs. 50 that ought to happen to be debited in discount account is not debited, therefore the debit side of discount account continues to be reduced through the same amount. We ought to debit Rs. 50 in discount account now, that was overlooked formerly and also the discount account will be remedied.
(iil) Goods offered to X wrongly debited in sales account. This error is effecting only sales account because the amount that ought to happen to be published around the credit side continues to be wrongly put on debit side of the identical account. For rectifying it, we ought to put double of transaction around the credit side of sales account by writing “By sales to X wrongly debited formerly.”
(iv) Quantity of Rs. 500 compensated to Y, not debited to his personal account. This error of effecting the private account of Y only and it is debit side is less by Rs. 500 due to omission to publish the quantity compensated. We shall now write on its debit side. “To cash (overlooked to become published) Rs. 500.
Correction of errors affecting two sides of several accounts
Because these errors affect several accounts, rectification of these errors, if being carried out prior to the preparation of ultimate accounts can frequently be achieved with the aid of a diary entry. While correcting these errors the quantity is debited in a single account/accounts whereas similar amount is credited with a other account/ accounts.
Correction of errors in next accounting period
As mentioned earlier, that you should locate and rectify the errors before preparing the ultimate makes up about the entire year. But in some cases when after considerable search, the accountant does not locate the errors and that he is in a rush to organize the ultimate accounts, from the business for filing the return for florida sales tax or tax purposes, he transfers the quantity of difference of trial good balance to a recently opened up ‘Suspense Account’. Within the next accounting period, whenever the errors can be found they are remedied with regards to suspense account. When all of the errors are discovered and fixed the suspense account will be closed instantly. We ought to remember here that just individuals errors which effect the totals of trial balance could be remedied with the aid of suspense account. Individuals errors that do not effect the trial balance can not be remedied with the aid of suspense account. For instance, if it’s discovered that debit total of trial balance was less by Rs. 500 because Wilson’s account wasn’t debited with Rs. 500, the next rectifying entry is needed to become passed.
Improvement in trial balance
Trial balance is impacted by only errors that are fixed with the aid of the suspense account. Therefore, to be able to calculate the main difference in suspense account a table is going to be prepared. When the suspense account is debited in’ the rectification entry the quantity is going to be placed on the debit side on the table. However, when the suspense account is credited, the quantity is going to be placed on the loan side on the table. Within the finish, the total amount is calculated and it is reversed within the suspense account. When the credit side exceeds, the main difference could be placed on the debit side from the suspense account. Aftereffect of Errors of ultimate Accounts
1. Errors effecting profit and loss account
You should note the result that the en-or shall dress in internet profit from the firm. Some point to keep in mind here’s that just individuals accounts that are used in buying and selling and profit and loss account during the time of preparation of ultimate accounts effect the internet profit. This means that just mistakes in nominal accounts and goods account will effect the internet profit. Error within the these accounts will either decrease or increase the internet profit.
The way the errors or their rectification effect the net income-following rules are useful to understand it :
(i) If due to a mistake a nominal account continues to be given some debit the net income will decrease or losses increases, and when it’s fixed the earnings increases and also the losses will decrease. For instance, machinery is overhauled for Rs. 10,000 however the amount debited to machinery repairs account -this error will lessen the profit. In rectifying entry the quantity will be used in machinery account from machinery repairs account, and it’ll boost the profits.
(il) If due to a mistake the quantity is overlooked from recording around the debit side of the nominal account-it leads to increase of profits or reduction in losses. The rectification of the error shall have reverse effect, meaning the net income will disappear and losses is going to be elevated. For instance, rent compensated to landlord however the amount continues to be debited to non-public account of landlord-it will raise the profit because the expense on rent is reduced. Once the error is fixed, we’ll publish the required amount in rent account which will raise the expenditure on rent and thus profits will disappear.
(iil) Profit increases or losses will decrease if your nominal account is wrongly credited. Using the rectification of the error, the earnings will decrease and losses increases. For instance, investments were offered and also the amount was credited to sales account. This error increases profits (or reduce losses) once the same error is fixed the quantity will be transferred from sales account to investments account with the result that sales will disappear resulting in reduction in profits (or rise in losses).
(iv) Profit will decrease or losses increases if the account is overlooked from posting within the credit side of the nominal or goods account. Once the same is going to be fixed it will raise the profit or lessen the losses. For instance, commission received is overlooked to become published towards the credit of commission account. This error will decrease profits ( or increase losses) being an earnings isn’t credited to learn and loss account. Once the error is going to be fixed, it’ll have reverse impact on profit and loss being an additional earnings is going to be credited to learn and loss account therefore the profit increases ( or even the losses will decrease). If because of any error the net income or losses are effected, it’ll have its impact on capital account also because earnings are credited and losses are debited within the capital account so the capital shall also decrease or increase. As capital is proven around the liabilities side of balance sheet so any error in nominal account will effect balance sheet too. Therefore we can tell that the error in nominal account or goods account effects profit and loss account in addition to balance sheet.
2. Errors effecting balance sheet only
If the error is committed inside a real or personal account, it’ll effect assets, liabilities, debtors or creditors from the firm and for that reason it’ll have its effect on balance sheet alone. since these products are proven in balance sheet only and balance sheet is ready following the profit and loss account continues to be prepared. Therefore if there’s any error in cash account, banking account, asset or liability account it’ll effect only balance sheet.